Cannabidiol is one of the most important phyto-cannabinoids. It is a non-psychoactive natural herbal substance. CBD is under extensive scientific research, for a wide range of applications.
CBD is recognised as a novel food, while it also used as the active ingredient of pharmaceutical products.
Phytocannabinois exit in the cannabis plant in their acidic form. Cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol are activated upon the conversion of acids (CBDA, THCA) to their neutral forms (CBD, THC), typically by heating.
Phyotocannabinoids are compounds of the cannabis plant and consist a group molecules that interact with the receptors of the endocannabinoid syetem. To date, at least 60 phytocannabinoids have been isolated. To date, at least 60 phytocannabinoids have been isolated. The major phytocannabinoids are Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabinol (CBN).
Another type of cannabinoid is endocannabinoids, which are made in the body and include anandamide and 2-AG.
Finally, there are cannabinoids
that are synthesized in laboratories and are called synthetic cannabinoids.
Cannabis is genus of flowering plants that includes three distinct species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Cannabis contains more than 400 phytochemicals and at least 60 known cannabinoids. THC and CBD are two of the most known cannabinoids.
An extract obtained from extraction and puritication processed of the cannabis plants. The extracts are active and concentrated, and contain high levels of cannabinoids and other compounds.
CB1 receptors are mainly expressed in the central nervous system, whereas the CB2 receptors are expressed in the immune and in the peripheral nervous system.
Supercritical CO2 extraction is a process used for the maximum recovery of the cannabinoids and the terpenes of the cannabis plant, while still maintaining their delicate structure.
The endocannabinoid system is a complex network of receptors, signaling molecules (endocannabinoids) and enzymes.
Research shows that the system plays an important role in the human health and well-being.
It serves the essential function of restoring homeostasis through physiological and regulatory mechanisms. Its effectiveness is enhanced by cannabinoids’ intake and their interacting to the ECS receptors.
The natural synergy of the cannabis plant’s complementary compounds, ie the phenomenon in which the cannabinoids (CBD, THC and other cannabinoids) and other compounds of the cannabis plant (terpenes, polyphenols, etc). interact, enhancing each other’s properties. They function by balancing each other and maximizing the benefits.
An oil extracted from industrial cannabis seeds by cold pressing. It contains only trace amounts of cannabinoids and terpenes, and is high in unsaturated fatty acids; used in paints and varnishes and in manufacturing soap and a wide variety of food products.
In Industrial hemp plant, THC content is below 0.2%. Cultivation of industrial cannabis (hemp) is legal in Europe and Greece (ΚΥΑ 1750/39224/31-3-2016. There is a wide range of cannabis products in various forms, such as edible products derived from cannabis seed (tea, protein, butter, chewing gum, pasta, nuts), body and face care products (creams, shampoos, toothpastes and massage oil), even hemp fiber clothes. High-CBD oils can be obtained through extraction processes of the industrial hemp.
Medicinal cannabis is defined as the varieties of the Cannabis Sativa L plant, with a THC content of more than 0.2%.
Under law 4801/2021 (Government Gazette 83/Α’/24-05-2021) the production, export, and distribution of finished medical cannabis products of the Cannabis Sativa L plant species with a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of more than 0.2% is allowed.
In Greece, the in so far approved cannabis indications are the following:
Specific variety of cannabis plant, with special morphological characteristics and specific chemical profile.
Aromatic volatile compounds found in the cannabis plant, that provide characteristic flavor. Terpenes are also studied for their pharmacological action.
THC is one of the most known cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. It is a psychoactive substance that acts on the receptors of the Endocannabinoid System. THC has a wide range of medical applications from relieving chronic neuropathic pain and treating nausea caused by chemotherapy, to relieving muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis.